Study guide for global health

This RFP calls for research that identifies the limitations of this existing framework and indicators when applied in the context of population ageing and suggests alternative or complementary approaches which may better capture health systems responses to population ageing. Methods may include literature reviews, secondary data analysis and comparative country case studies.

Study guide for global health

There are few data that describe a nation's ability to provide surgical care. This study combines information quantifying the infrastructure, human resources, interventions ie, proceduresemergency equipment and supplies for resuscitation, and surgical procedures offered at many government hospitals in Sierra Leone.

There were only 10 Sierra Leonean surgeons practicing in the surveyed government hospitals. Many procedures performed at most of the hospitals were cesarean sections, hernia repairs, and appendectomies.

There were few supplies at any of the hospitals, forcing patients to provide their own. There was a disparity between conditions at the government hospitals and those at the private and mission hospitals. While it will be difficult to improve the infrastructure of government hospitals, training additional personnel to deliver safe surgical care is possible.

The situational analysis tool is a valuable mechanism to quantify a nation's surgical capacity. It provides the background data that have been lacking in the discussion of surgery as a public health problem and will assist in Study guide for global health the effectiveness of interventions to improve surgical infrastructure and care.

Traditionally, treating surgical diseases in developing countries has not been a priority in the public health sector. Large global programs have been successfully established for evaluating and treating diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus infection and malaria, but similar efforts for surgical diseases have been limited.

Awareness of surgery as a branch of public health, however, is beginning to gain momentum. Reports from single institutions or districts are available, but it is rare that an entire country's capacity is described.

Sierra Leone, however, is a sufficiently small country that surgical capacity can be effectively studied. Although infrastructure is slowly improving after its civil war that spanned throughSierra Leone ranks near the bottom of most lists that organizations such as the Central Intelligence Agency create to rank a population's health, such as life expectancy and infant mortality.

The infant mortality rate, for example, is per live births, the second highest in the world, and life expectancy is 40 years.

The government hospitals were decimated during the civil war, but they form the backbone of surgical care for most of the country's population. This report examined the infrastructure, human resources, interventions ie, proceduresand emergency equipment and supplies for resuscitation offered at most government hospitals in Sierra Leone.

Sierra Leone consistently ranks at the bottom of the United Nations' Health Development Index, so these data will serve as the foundation for building surgical capacity and evaluating the impact of interventions.

The needs assessment in Sierra Leone was performed in all of the government hospitals in Freetown, the capital of Sierra Leone, and in other government hospitals throughout the country.

In total, 10 of the 17 government civilian hospitals where surgery is performed were surveyed. The private hospital in Freetown was surveyed by one of us T. The mission Emergency Hospital was surveyed by one of us R.

Study guide for global health

The assessment was made using a questionnaire that evaluated a hospital's infrastructure and personnel, surgical interventions that were performed, and availability of supplies. The form was filled out by two of us T.

Visits lasted between 1 and 5 hours and were conducted in February The surgical procedures that were performed at each facility were captured from the surgical log books from October 1,to February 20, The harvest season is during the dry season, from December to February.

Surgeons at Connaught Hospital report a change in the types of cases during this period, with an increase in road traffic accidents due to passable roads and increased work requirements. There is, however, a decrease in elective surgical cases until the harvest has been completed.

For the purposes of this article, 38 of the data points were selected for comparison. Results Infrastructure The infrastructure of all public facilities in Sierra Leone was devastated by the civil war that spanned from toand as a result, government hospitals have severe shortcomings Table 1.

There were a total of hospital beds in the 10 surveyed hospitals, averaging beds per institution and surgical patients per year per institution.

Study guide for global health

Dependable water supplies and electricity are rare throughout most of Sierra Leone. Since Januarythe 5 hospitals in Freetown have received electrical power at an increasingly steady rate.

They use generators when electricity is unavailable. The 5 other hospitals surveyed depended on generator power, but owing to the scarcity and cost of fuel, patients' families were sometimes required to provide the necessary fuel to power generators during surgical procedures.Global Health Study Guide.

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A country with gross national income per capita of $1, is classified by the World Bank as a(n): Low-income country. What is the most important milestone achieved in global health over the last 50 years?

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Study Abroad Instagram More Modules Module 1 - Introduction Many different types of injury, and also surgical incisions, result in damage to the skin.

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