Theory[ edit ] Shows the relative wavelengths of the electromagnetic waves of three different colours of light blue, green, and red with a distance scale in micrometers along the x-axis.
RFR can penetrate into organic tissues and be absorbed and converted into heat.
One familiar application of this energy is the microwave ovens used in cooking. The relatively fixed position of the antenna to the head causes a repeated irradiation of a more or less fixed amount of body tissue. Exposure to RFR from mobile telephones is of a short-term, repeated nature at a relatively high intensity, whereas exposure to RFR emitted from cell masts is of long duration but at a very low intensity.
The biological and health consequences of these exposure conditions need further understanding. Formal research on the biological effects of RFR began more than 30 years ago.
In my opinion, the research has been of high quality, innovative, and intelligent. All of us who work in this field should be proud of it. However, knowledge of the possible health effects of RFR is still inadequate and inconclusive. I think the main barrier in understanding the biological effects of RFR is caused by the complex interaction of the different exposure parameters in causing an effect.
An independent variable of such complexity is unprecedented in any other field of biological research. In this paper, I have briefly summarized the results of experiments carried out in our laboratory on the effects of RFR exposure on the nervous system of the rat. But, before that, I will discuss and point out some of the general features and concerns in the study of the biological effects of RFR.
This is generally given as the specific absorption rate SARwhich is the rate of energy absorbed by a unit mass e. This information tells us nothing about the efficacy of the tablets unless the amount taken is also known, e.
The amount of a drug absorbed into the body is the main determinant of its effect.
Unfortunately, RFR does not behave as simply as a drug. The rate of absorption and the distribution of RFR energy in an organism depend on many factors.
For example, an experiment reported by Chou et al. The rat was stationary when it was exposed. The situation is more complicated if an animal is moving in an RF field.
Depending on the amount of movement of the animal, the energy absorption pattern in its body could become either more complex and unpredictable or more uniform. In the latter situation, we are all familiar with the case that a microwave oven with a rotating carousel provides more uniform heating of the food than one without.
However, the distribution of energy in the head of a user of a mobile telephone is more discrete because of the relatively stationary position of the phone.
As a reference, from theoretical calculations [e. The peak energy output of mobile telephones can range from 0. Thus, in summary, the pattern of energy absorption inside an irradiated body is non-uniform, and biological responses are dependent on distribution of energy and the body part that is affected [Lai et al.
Related to this is that we [Lai et al. This further indicates that the pattern of energy absorption could be an important determining factor of the nature of the response. Two obviously important parameters are the frequency and intensity of RFR.
Frequency is analogous to the color of a light bulb, and intensity is its wattage. Most previous research studied frequencies different from those used in wireless communication.
Frequency is like the color of an object. But, if one is going to send some information by Morse code using a light on and off, etc. It must be pointed out that data showing different frequencies producing different effects, or an effect was observed at one frequency and not at another, are sparse.
An example is the study by Sanders et al  who observed that RFR at frequencies of and MHz, but not at MHz, produced effects on energy metabolism in neural tissue.
However, it is not certain whether these differences were actually due to differences in the distribution of energy absorption in the body of the exposed animal at the varous frequencies. In addition, some studies showed frequency-window effects, i.At Lake Neusiedl effects of different management methods (reed- and grass-cutting, cattle-grazing) on small-mammal communities was evaluated.
The second study location was km far from the first and basal data of the small-mammal fauna (and bats) of this region (species-richness, population parameters) should be obtained. Electromagnetic Radiation's Effect on the Lifespan of Gryllidae Abstract The main objective in this experiment was to determine if electromagnetic radiation would affect the lifespan of a population of Gryllidae.
The 21 Gryllidae were placed in three groups of seven each. Each group was cov. Some iPhone fans claim that they ‘feel’ the side effects of increased electromagnetic radiation levels, when the battery of their device is low.
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NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Kennedy, Ann R. As part of a program to assess. Hindawi is one of the world’s largest publishers of peer-reviewed, fully Open Access journals. Critical Analysis of Electromagnetic Hyperthermia Randomized Trials: Report of the Pilot Study Done for the Proposed Investigation on the Possible Synergic Effect between High-Dose Ascorbic Acid Application and Oncothermia Treatment.
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|Seattle, Washington, USA Introduction There is a general concern on the possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation RFR emitted from wireless communication devices.|
|Electromagnetic Fields||The exposure complies with current safety guidelines. The established knowledge of biological effects of RF does not provide any evidence for anecdotally reported effects such as memory loss or causing brain tumors.|