A black boy is washing windows, a Native American sits separate from the class, and a Chinese boy is outside the door.
After formulating a plan of national expansion, they were stirred to action by an event involving the violent death of a large number of Americans.
In the aftermath, they maneuvered a weak-minded president to the brink of war, and then distorted intelligence to smooth the transition into battle.
The conventional phase of combat was brief, as promised, but an ensuing insurgency was prolonged and deadly. What had been portrayed as a war of liberation became a war of hostile occupation. If I had even a faint glimmering that there had been a Philippine-American War, it was about American horsemen running down turbaned insurgents who were on foot, swing knives.
I learned about the Philippine-American War on a trip to Manila, when I wandered into a museum that had a succession of diorama. One showed American cavalrymen moving down people with six shooters and gatling guns.
Thereafter I went to the Metropolitan bookstore and bought a sackful of books about this event. I must say that when I began to research this, Belinda Aquino was the only person I found who had a deep, clear-minded understanding that annexation was intimately tied with the Philippines.
She helped me see that Hawaii is a transitional hub to a Pacific-wide and ultimately global story. Hawaii was and is, the single most important overseas land space in the American design, the base for projecting American power into, and dominating, the second of the American oceans.
If we can digest that fact, then our historical research and dialogue and such gatherings as today take on a new level of meaning. Most of us are familiar with the idea that American overseas expansionism began with the doctrine of James Monroe asserting a special privilege and control over the Americas.
Thereafter the American Civil War diverted the energy and attention of American expansionism, but in the long slow recovery an agenda was formulated by a nucleus of people in Washington, D.
By name, these individuals were: During the nondescript administration of Benjamin Harrison, they lunched together at the Metropolitan Club in Washington, D. Become a first-tier naval power.
Then we built more powerful fighting vessels, and as there was a section of the public which regarded battleships as immorally suggestive of violence, we called them armored cruisers. There still remained a public, as old as Jefferson, that thought our problem to be one of coastal defense, an attitude as sensible as a prizefighter who expected to win by merely parrying instead of hitting.
Next on the agenda was control of the sea lanes to Latin America and Asia, specifically a control of the Caribbean ocean; b construction of a canal across the isthmus of North and South America, allowing the American navy to fight wars in both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans simultaneously if need be; and c the heart of the matter in terms of strategic projection of power across the sea lanes to Asia: Acquisition of Pearl Harbor.
All of my research says this is not the case, that the overriding goal of America was to secure the only harbor in the northern Pacific with a narrow, easily defended mouth and large inner lochs capable of housing a large fleet of ships beyond the reach of enemy naval guns.
A joint resolution of Congress annexing Hawaii passed both houses, and the islands became American possessions. While Congress was considering the annexation treaty, an American fleet was steaming across the Pacific to attack the Philippine Islands. The Age of Imperialism: An online History. This history unit covers United States expansionism around the turn of the century, with many links to related sites. This American influence led to controversy among American citizens on whether American Imperialism was the right thing to do. Imperialists wanted the American government to continue to take over smaller nations for several reasons while Anti-Imperialists wanted the government to continue in .
The scout who made this assessment, and archived it inwas Major Schofield, for whom a famous set of barracks in Hawaii was to be named. The problem with the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy was timing: No sooner had it occurred than America changed from the Harrison Administration to Grover Cleveland, who famously had qualms about the taking of a small, defenseless land of innocent people who did not want to be part of the United States.
As Cleveland fretted over what to do, Hawaii fell under a repressive government masquerading as a Republic under the leadership of Sanford Dole.
The progression of expansionist history went into a four-year stall, from early towhen yet another obscure figure of enormous historical importance, Republican William McKinley, was elected president.
It is important to point out that the most frequent and intense correspondence between Roosevelt and Mahan was about the importance of taking over Hawaii. In the famous terms of historian Charles Beard, it had reached the limit of the frontier.
It wallowed in economic depression brought on chiefly by massive overproduction and a lack of adequate overseas markets.The first known settlers of the Hawaiian Islands were Polynesian voyagers who arrived sometime in the eighth century, and in the early 18th century the first American traders came to Hawaii to.
Imperialism: Annexation of Hawaii Information: Throughout the late 19th century and the early 20th century the United States of America was rapidly growing towards the the idea of imperialism.
William Jennings Bryan: The Paralyzing Influence of Imperialism, “The Annexation of Hawaii: A Special Collection of Documents” The Question of an American Empire: Worksheet 1: Imperialism beliefs; Media.
Albert Beveridge was US Senator from Indiana (), and a fervent supporter of American imperialism. American Imperialism ENDURING UNDERSTANDING At the beginning of the 20th Century, competition for Hawaii's monarchy in precipitated a momentous debate over the United States' Some Americans saw imperialism as funda-mentally un-American.
They wondered how the . American imperialism is a policy aimed at extending the political, economic, and cultural control of the United States government over areas beyond its boundaries.
It can be accomplished in any number of ways: by military conquest, by treaty, by subsidization, by economic penetration through private companies followed by intervention when those interests are threatened, or by regime change.
The Age of Imperialism: An online History. This history unit covers United States expansionism around the turn of the century, with many links to related sites.