Because his father died before he was born he was considered King of Spain from the moment he was born. He grew up in and around Spain with his mother she was an Austrian Princess and his two sisters. In at the age of 18 he went searching for a bride. Hearing about the loveliness of the granddaughters of Queen Victoria of England he went to the court of King Edward Victoria's son he originally wanted Princess Patricia but since she was the daughter of Queen Victoria's second son and fourth born child she was considered too close to the throne to become Queen of Spain.
Officially, his father was her husband, Infante Francis.
Alfonso's biological paternity is uncertain: His mother's accession created the second cause of instability, which was the Carlist Wars.
The supporters of the Count of Molina as king of Spain rose to have him enthroned. In addition, within the context of the post-Napoleonic restorations and revolutions which engulfed the West both in Europe and the Americas, both the Carlistas as well as the Isabelino conservatives were opposed to the new Napoleonic constitutional system.
This led to the third cause of instability of note, the "Independence of the American Kingdoms", recognized between and A split nation[ edit ] When Queen Isabella and her husband were forced to leave Spain by the Revolution ofAlfonso accompanied them to Paris.
From there, he was sent to the Theresianum at Vienna to continue his studies. On 25 Junehe was recalled to Paris, where his mother abdicated in his favour, in the presence of a number of Spanish nobles who had tied their fortunes to that of the exiled queen.
Cuban slaves would have to wait until But the republicans were not in agreement either, and they had to contend with the War in Cuba, and Muslim uprisings in Spanish Morocco. In the midst of the crisis during and after the First Spanish Republic, the Carlist party made itself strong in areas with claims over their national and institutional specificity, such as Catalonia or the Basque districts.
Bythe Third Carlist War erupted. This unrest led to the creation of a group in favor of the Bourbon restoration, made by some sectors of the conservatives led by Canovas del Castillo. He sent Alfonso to the Royal Military College, Sandhurstin England, where the training Alfonso received was severe but more cosmopolitan than in Spain, given the current atmosphere.
On 1 DecemberAlfonso issued the Sandhurst Manifesto, where he set the ideological basis of the Bourbon Restoration.
It was drafted in reply to a birthday greeting from his followers, a manifesto proclaiming himself the sole representative of the Spanish monarchy. Martinez Campos in Sagunto ended the failed republic and meant the rise of the young Prince Alfonso.
Ina vigorous campaign against the Carlistsin which the young king took part, resulted in the defeat of Don Carlos and the Duke's abandonment of the struggle. In order to eliminate one of the problems of the reign of Isabel II, the single party and its destabilizing consequences, the Liberal Party was allowed to incorporate and participate in national politics, and the 'turnismo' or alternation was to become the new system.
Turnismo would be endorsed in the Constitution of and the Pact of Pardo Palace It meant that liberal and conservative prime ministers would succeed each other ending thus the troubles. This led to the end of the Carlist revolts and the victory over the New York-backed Cuban revolutionaries, and led to a huge backing both by insular and peninsular Spaniards of Alfonso as a wise and able king.
Alfonso's short reign established the foundations for the final socioeconomic recuperation of Spain after the — crisis. On 23 January at the Basilica of Atocha in Madrid, Alfonso married his first cousin, Princess Maria de las Mercedesdaughter of Antoine, Duke of Montpensierbut she died within six months of the marriage.
During the honeymoon, a pastry cook named Otero fired at the young sovereign and his wife as they were driving in Madrid.
He had been suffering from tuberculosisbut the immediate cause of his death was a recurrence of dysentery. Coming to the throne at such an early age Alfonso had served no apprenticeship in the art of ruling. Benevolent and sympathetic in disposition, he won the affection of his people by fearlessly visiting districts ravaged by cholera or devastated by earthquake in His capacity for dealing with men was considerable, and he never allowed himself to become the instrument of any particular party.Alfonso died aged 27 in , and was succeeded by his unborn son, who became Alfonso XIII on his birth the following year.
To date, he is the last monarch of Spain who died whilst on the throne. Contents. biography/Alfonso-XIII. named as. Alfonso XIII. retrieved. 9 October stated in. Spanish Biographical Dictionary. Dictionary of Spanish Biography ID.
named as. Alfonso XIII. Alfonso XIII of Spain. 0 references. Commons category. Alfonso XIII of Spain. 1 reference. imported from Wikimedia project. Russian Wikipedia.
The full biography of Alfonso XIII of Spain, including facts, birthday, life story, profession, family and more. Alfonso XIII () was king of Spain from to His troubled reign was characterized by violent class conflict, political instability, and dictatorship.
Alfonso was born in Madrid on May 17, , 6 months after the death of his father, King Alfonso XII. King Alfonso XIII was born on May 17, His mother was the former Queen of Spain and his father was the deceased King Alfonso XII.
Because his father died before he was born he was considered King of Spain from the moment he was born. King Alfonso XIII was born on May 17, His mother was the former Queen of Spain and his father was the deceased King Alfonso XII.